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Interlinear Translation

 

 

This version contains also the method to date back to the roots and distinguish the meanings. However, it contains only the verbal roots from where we draw away, in their inference or division, from d’Olivét. In order to avoid repetition, the notes concerning radical distinctions will be present only at their first appearance in the text, in any form they come from. In this section the vowels of the Hebrew text result extremely compromised from the reproduction, but we must always keep in mind that the original Hebrew text was devoid of vowels, which have been added at a later time.

 

To visualize the Hebrew language, written from right to left, it is necessary

to have Hebrew font in your pc (bwhebb, see Homepage).

 

Chapter One

 

The topic or the main topics of this chapter coincide with the etymological topic of the name of number One, that is: “what is the initial one, the relative unit, the central point, the abstract principle of things.” The topic of the name of the number one is almost always present in verse one, eleven, twenty-one and thirty-one of each chapter.

 

 

Translation with etymological dictionary

1:1 In the beginning God created the essence of the sky and the earth.

King James Bible

1:1 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.


tyviÞarEB.

In the beginning

ar"äB'

He created

~yhi_l{a

God [1]

ta

The essence [2]

~yIm:ßV'h

Of the sky

taeîw

And the essence

#r<a'(h'

Of the earth

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  ~yhla   Elohim This is the plural of the word  hla  the name given to the Supreme Being by the Hebrews and the Chaldeans, and being itself derived from the root  la  which depicts elevation, strength and expansive power; signifiying in an universal sense, GOD. It is a very singular observation that this last word applied to the Most High, is however, in its abstract sense only the relative pronoun he employed in an absolute manner. Nearly all of the Asiatic peoples have used this bold metaphor.  aAh  (hoa), that is to say, HE, is in Hebrew, Chaldaic, Syriac, Ethiopic and Arabic, one of the sacred names of the Divinity; it is evident that the Persian word (persian font) (Goda), GOD, which is found in all the tongues of the North, is derived also from the absolute pronoun (persian font), Him-self. It is known that the Greek philosophers and Plato particularly, designated the Intelligent Cause of the Universe in no other way than by the absolute pronoun (greek font). However that may be, the Hebraic name Elohim has been obviously composed of the pronoun  la  and the absolute verb  hAh  to be-being, of which I have spoken at length in my Grammar. It is from the inmost root of this verb that the Divine Name  hy  (Yah) is formed, the literal meaning of which is Absolute-Life. The verb itself, united to the pronoun  la  produces  hAla  (AEloah), that-He-who-is, the plural of which AElohim, signifies exactly HE-they-who-ARE: the Being of beings. The Samaritan says (samaritan font) ( Alah) whose root  la  is found still in the Arabic (arabic font) (Allah), and in the Syriac (syriac font) AEloha). The Chaldaic alone departs from this root and translates  yyy  (Iaii), the Eternity-of-eternities, which it also applies to the Ineffable Name of GOD,  hwhy  (Ihoah), of which I shall speak further on; also of the words  ~ymv  the heavens, and  #ra  the earth.”

[2] RADICAL VOCABULARY: “  ta  ATH. The potential sign united to that of sympathy and of reciprocity, constitutes a root which develops the relations of things to themselves, their mutual tie, their sameness or selfsameness relative to the universal soul, their very substance. That which serves as character, type, symbol, sign, mark, etc.”

 

 

 

 

1:2 And while God animated the matter with His spirit, the look of everything was contracted, enveloped and latent in its essence.

1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.

 

#r<a'ªh'w>

And the earth

ht'îy>h'

She was

‘Whto’

Latent existence [1]

Whboêw"

Inside another latent existence

%v,xoßw

  %v     wx 

And darkness; compressive and hardening force on the existence

ynEåP.-l[;

  !p 

It (was) the cause of the appearance; it (was) the cause of the countenance; it (was) the cause of the phenomenon

~Ah+t.

Of the infinite source of potential existence [2]

x:Wråw

  wx    wr    r 

And the emanation of the existence of

~yhiêl{a

God

tp,x,Þr:m

Was generative emanating the existence

; ynEïP.-l[;

Upon the appearance of

`~yIM")h;

  am 

The things, the matters, the masses [3]

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  Whbw  ‘Wht  , contingent-potentiality in-a-potentiality-of-being. If one examines the sense of the four original versions, a great difference is found between what they say and what I say. The Samaritan version reads (samaritan fonts here) distended to incomprehensibility and most rare. The Chaldaic targum says  aynqrw  aydc  , divided to annihilation and vain. The Hellenists translate (greek fonts here) invisible and decomposed. Saint Jerome understood "inanis et vacua" unanimated and vague, or unformed and void. The error into which all these translators have fallen depends here upon a prior one very slight in appearance, but whose consequences becoming more and more complicated pushes them into an abyss from which nothing can draw them. This first error depends upon the manner in which they have understood the first word of the Sepher, the famous  tyviÞarEB.  . This word, having impressed them neither in its figurative nor in its hieroglyphic sense, has involved all that follows, in the literal and material sense that they have given to it. I pray the reader to give strict attention to this, for upon this depends all the incoherences, all the absurdities with which Moses has been reproached. In fact, if the word  tyviÞarEB.   signified simply, in the beginning, in the beginning of time, as it was said, why did not the heavens and the earth, created at that epoch, still exist at that time; why should there be need of a successive development; why should they have rested an eternity in darkness; why should the light have been made after the heavens and before the sun; can one conceive the heavens without light, light without the sun, an earth invisible, inanimate, vain, formless, if it is material; etc., etc. But what can remedy all this? Absolutely nothing but an understanding of the tongue which is translated and seeing that  tyviÞarEB.  means not only in the beginning, (greek fonts here), "principle", but clearly in principle; that is to say, not yet in action but in power; as Saint Augustine interpreted it. This is the thought of Moses, profound thought which he expresses admirably by the words  Whboêw"  ‘Whto’  , in which he depicts with masterhand that state of a thing, not only in contingent power of being, but still contained in another power of being; in short, without form, in germ in a germ. It is the famous (greek fonts here) of the Greeks, that chaos which the vulgar have also gradually materialized and whose figurative and hieroglyphic signification I could very easily demonstrate were it necessary. The Hebraic words  Whboêw"  ‘Whto’  belong to those words which the sages create in learned tongues and which the vulgar do not comprehend. Let us now examine their figurative and hieroglyphic sense. We know that the sign  h  is that of life. We have seen that this sign being doubled, formed the essentially living root  hh  , which, by the insertion of the luminous sign, became the verb  hAh  , to be-being. But let us imagine now that, wishing to express, not an existence in action, but only in power, we restrict the verbal root in the sole sign of life and extinguish the luminous sign  A  to bring it back to the convertible  W  ; we shall have only a compressed root wherein the being will be latent and as it were, in germ. This root  Wh  , composed of the sign of life, and of that which, as we know, is the link between nothingness and being, expresses marvelously well that incomprehensible state of a thing when it exists no more, and when it is, nevertheless, in power of existing. It is found in the Arabic (arabic fonts here) in which it depicts a desire, a tendency, a vague, indeterminate existence. It is sometimes an unfathomable depth, (arabic fonts here); sometimes a sort of physical death (arabic fonts here); sometimes an ethereal space (arabic fonts here), etc. Moses, after the example of the Egyptian priests, taking this root and making it rule by the sign of mutual reciprocity  t  , formed the word  ‘Wht  by means of which he expressed a contigent and potential existence contained in another potential existence  Whb  ; for here he inflects the same root by the mediative article  b  . Thus, there is no need of conceiving the earth invisible, decomposed, vague, void, formless, which is absurd or contradictory; but only as existing still in power, in another seed-producing power, which must be developed in order that it may be developed.”

[2] D’Olivet’s note: “  ~Aht  the deep. This is the root  Wh  which I have already analyzed, modified now by the reciprocal sign  t  and endowed with the collective sign  ~  which develops its power in infinite space.”

[3] The Hebrew words meaning matter and water, come from two different roots, yet so similar, which in the formation of their words, are always expressed only in the plural form, they become indistinguishable, in the absence of a context or of their lost pronunciation, which identifies them. RADICAL VOCABULARY:

  am  MA. That which tends to the aggrandizement of its being, to its entire development; that which serves as instrument of generative power and manifests it exteriorly. The Arabic (arabic fonts here) presents in its original sense the same ideas as the Hebraic root; but this root has acquired in Arabic a greater number of developments than it has in Hebrew ; this is why it demands in both idioms all the attention of those who wish to go back to the essence of language.

  am  or (arabic fonts here), characterizes in general, passive matter, the thing of which, with which, and by means of which, all is made. It is in particular, in the Arabic idiom, water; anything whatsoever, all or nothing, according to the manner in which it is considered. This important root, conceived as pronominal relation designates the possibility of all things, and is represented by the analogues what and which; conceived, on the contrary, as adverbial relation, it is employed in Arabic to express the absence of every determined object and is rendered by the analogues not, no. As verb, the root (arabic fonts here) or (arabic fonts here) signifies in general, to go everywhere, to extend everywhere, to fill space, etc..”

 

 

 

 

1:3 And God said, let there be light: and there was light.

1:3 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.

 

rm,aYOðw:

And He said [1]

~yhiÞl{a

God

yhiäy>

There shall be

rAa

The light

`rAa*-yhiy>w:)

And there became light

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  ramyw  And-he-said. It can be seen by the etymology which I have given of this important verb in chapter VII of my Grammar, that it signifies not only to say, but according to the occasion, it can attain a signification much more exalted. Now, is this occasion more important than that in which the Being of beings manifests his creative will? To understand it in the literal sense only, is to degrade it, and is detrimental to the thought of the writer. As the judicious Maimonides said, it is necessary to spiritualize the sense of this word and to guard against imagining any sort of speech. It is an act of the will and as is indicated by the hieroglyphic composition of the verb  rAma  a power which declares, manifests and reflects itself without, upon the being which it enlightens.”

 

 

 

 

1:4 And God saw that the essence of the light was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.

1:4 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.

 

ar.Y:ôw

And He saw

~yhi²l{a

God

rAaàh'-ta

The essence of the light

+-yKi

That

bAj

bAj      bAa       ba       j

Good [1]

lDEäb.Y:w

And He made a division, a separation

~yhiêl{a

God

!yBeî

Between

rAaàh

The light

!ybeîW

And between

`%v,xo)h

The darkness

[1] RADICAL VOCABULARY: “Whatever is producer and product, whatever germinated, protects; or reflects the effects of every productive cause, of every efficient will, of every determined movement, of every generative power, of every fructification; everything grows up, everything spreads and germinates; everything is able to be entirely conserved; everything can defend and resist to corruption.”

 

 

 

 

1:5 And God called the light Day and the darkness Night. This was the physical growth and the characteristics of the first day.

1:5 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.

 

ar"’q.YIw

And He called

~yhiÛl{a

God

‘rAal'

To the light

~Ayë

~y         ~Ay

Day; visible manifestation of the matter

%v,xoßl;w

And to the darkness

ar"q

He called

hl'y>l

hwl  yl       lyl

Night; that which binds things and envelops them; what connects things, what makes them adherent and tangled

br<[,î-yhiy>w:)

br       w[

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiy>w

rq   ab

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ayð

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`dx'(a

First, one

 

 

 

 

1:6 Then God said: there will be a rarefying force in the point where the matter is shaped, to separate the matter.

1:6 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiêl{a

God

yhiîy

There shall be

[:yqIßr

Empty space; ethereal empty space; empty rarefaction; expansion, thinning out, empty disclosing [1]

%AtåB

%t

In the point where (things) start taking form, in the point where (things) start taking shape. In the middle, between

~yIM"+h;

Of the matter

yhiäyw

And it shall be

lyDIêb.m

A rarefying force dividing. Extractable, attracting to the top, attenuating inside; every extraction and abstraction made from the bottom to the top

!yBeî

Between

~yIm

The matter

`~yIm")l'

Of the matter

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  [yqr  a-rarefying. The Hellenists have translated this word by the Greek (greek font), which signifies a firm, solid thing; Saint Jerome has imitated them in saying "firmamentum," firmament. This version grossly misinterprets Moses, who never thought that ethereal space was either firm or solid, as he has been made to say; on the contrary, the root  qr  from which he draws this expression contains the idea of tenuity and expansion. The verb  qWr  or  qyr  which comes from it, signifies to be rarefied or rendered void. Finally the compound word  [Aqr  whence the word referred to is derived, presents only the sense of expanding and attenuating. It is difficult to understand how the Hellenists have been able to see in all this, their solid (greek font); at least assuming the idea of Richard Simon who thinks that they have followed, on this occasion, the rude jargon that was spoken at that time in Jerusalem. (Hist. crit. L. II. ch. 5). The Samaritan version translates the word  [yqr  by (samaritan font) that is to say, order, harmony, arrangement of parts; an idea very far from solidity. Perhaps the Hellenists have deemed it proper to materialize this expression. However that may be, the Arabic (arabic font), even the Syriac (syriac font), and the Ethiopic analogue (ethiopic font), confirm all the ideas of subtlety, tenuity and spirituality which is in the Hebrew.”

 

 

 

 

1:7 And God made the essence of the rarefaction; and He separated the matter that was below the rarefaction from the matter that was above the rarefaction; and this was constituted.

1:7 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.

 

f[;Y:åw

And he made

~yhil{a

God

è[:yqir"h'-ta

The essence of the rarefaction

lDEªb.Y:w

And He separated, divided, isolated

!yBeÛ

Between

‘~yIM;’h

The matter

rv,a

Which

tx;T;ämi

(Was) under

[:yqiêr"l'

The rarefaction

!ybeäW

And between

~yIM;êh

The matter

rv<ßa

Which (was)

l[;äme

Upper

[:yqI+r"l'

The rarefaction

`!kE)-yhiy>w

And it was decided, designated

 

 

 

 

1:8 And God called the rarefaction Sky; this was the physical growth and the characteristics of the second day.

1:8 And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.

 

ar"óq.YIw

And He called

~yhi²l{a

God

[:yqIßr"l

To the rarefaction

~yIm"+v'

am      m       ~v

Sky. The elevated matter, separated, eminent matter

br<[,î-yhiy>w

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiyw

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ayð

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`ynI)ve

Second, two

 

 

 

 

1:9 Then God said, the matter below the sky will tend toward one single place and dryness will appear; and this was constituted.

1:9 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiªl{a

God

Ww“Q'yI

They shall tend to; shall gravitate (shall tend, becoming that tension) [*]

~yIM;øh

The masses, the matter

tx;T;Ûmi

Under

‘~yIm;’V'h

The sky

~Aqåm'-la

Towards a gravitating place; towards the point of that tension [1] [*]

dx'êa

Unique, one

ha,Þr"tew

And there shall be seen

hv'_B'Y:h;

The dryness

`!kE)-yhiy>w:)

And it was decided, designated

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  WwQy  The root  WQ  , whence comes the verb  hWQ  , expresses every leaning, every inclination, every movement of blind but irresistible force toward a goal. The figurative sense of this expression, which Moses uses according to its intensive verbal form, has been corrupted by the Samaritans who restrict it to the literal sense, and make use of the verb (samaritan fonts here), according to the reflexive form (samaritan fonts here); that is to say, they shall be confluent, the waters  ~Aqm-la  , toward a driving-place This word, which Moses uses after the verb  hWq  , holds to the same root. It is a figure of speech which this hierographic writer never lacks, and which proves the inner knowledge that he had of his tongue: one always finds the verb derived from the substantive or the substantive derived from the verb, proceeding together as if to confirm and sustain each other. In this instance, the root  Wq  which expresses the tendency toward a goal, the force which drives with power in action, produces at first the verb  hWq  , which depicts the movement toward that goal: this one taking on the character  m  as collective sign, becomes the verb  ~Wq  whose meaning is, to substantialize, to establish in substance, to drive with power in action. This same verb,  hWq  , being inflected in its turn by the sign of exterior action  m  becomes the very place, the goal of the movement, the action resulting from the power.”

[*] This is the style of the writer; he use verbs and nouns, drawn from the same root, and repeat them in different modifications. It is an important feature for understanding and confirmation of the translation.

 

 

 

 

1:10 And God called the dryness Earth and the tension of the matter Water; and God saw that it was good.

1:10 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

 

ar"’q.YIw

And He called

~yhiÛl{a

God

‘hv'B'Y:l

To the dryness

#r<a

Earth [1]

hwEïq.mil.W,ê;

And to the tendency (and to the result, the effect) [2]

~yIM:ßh

Of the matter

ar"äq'

He called

~yMi_y

The seas [3]

ar.Y:ïw:

And He saw

~yhiÞl{a

God

`bAj)-yKi

That it was good

[1] D’Olivét’ note: “  #ra  earth.... I make the same remark with respect to the earth, that I have made with respect to the heavens, and pass on to its etymology. The primitive root  ra  contains the united signs, almost always violent, of stable power and of continued movement proper. These two signs which appear opposed to each other, produce an elementary root which is found again in all tongues, and which, expressing that which pertains to the elementary principle or to nature in general, signifies, following the new modifications that it receives, light, ether, fire, air, water, earth and even metal. The Hebraic tongue which is no other than the primitive Egyptian, possesses this root in all its modifications, as can be seen in the Rad. Vocab. root  ra  and  rb  etc. Without there being need for examining here the diverse modifications of this important root, let it suffice for me to say, that whether one adds the signs of compression and material sense, as the Chaldeans and Samaritans in their words  #ra  and  qra  or (samaritan font) or whether one places there, as the Hebrews, the sign  #  which expresses the term and end of all substance, one finds equally earth, that is to say, the element which is limited, figured, tactile, compressive, plastic, etc.”

[2] The gravity, through the atmospheric pressure, is the indispensable condition for the liquid state of water.

[3] RADICAL VOCABULARY:

  ~y  IM. The sign of manifestation united to that of exterior action as collective sign, composes a root whose purpose is to indicate universal manifestation and to develop all ideas of mass and accumulation.

  ~y  In a literal and restricted sense, the sea; that is to say, the universal aqueous manifestation, the mass of waters. As noun, the Arabic (arabic font here), signifies the sea, and as verb, submerge. This word is preserved in the Coptic (coptic font here), and appears not to be foreign to the Japanese umi.”

 

 

 

 

1:11 And God said, the earth will produce vegetation, which will reproduce itself according to species from its seeds; and this was constituted.

1:11 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiªl{a

God

aveÛd>T

She shall vegetate [1]

‘#r<a'’h'

The earth

av,D

Vegetation

bf,[

ba     f[     Or   bf       w[

That forms producing/generating itself

[:yrIåz>m

Seeding, germinating

[r:z<ë;

Seed, germ

#[eä

Of physical substance, which grows up, develops, consolidates

yrIúP

Fruit

hf,[

That makes

yrIP

Fruit

Anëymil.

Of the species

rv<ïa

Which

Abß-A[r>z

The seed inside itself

#r<a'_h'-l[;:]

On the earth

`!kE)-yhiy>w:)

And it was decided, designated

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  avdT  , shall-cause-to-grow This is the verb  avd  to grow, used according to the excitative form, active movement, future tense. The Hebraic phrase has a delicacy and precision that is almost impossible to make understood even in the word-for-word, where I allow myself the greatest license, not only in the form but also in the concatenation of the words. There exists only the difficulty which rises from the idiomatic genius and from the turn of phrase affected by Moses. This turn of phrase consists, as I have already said, in drawing always the noun and the verb from the same root, and in repeating them under diverse modifications. One can perceive in this verse and in those following, the singular grace and picturesque beauty.
I venture to hope even through the perplexity of the French and English word-for-word rendering, that by adhering to the literal sense, one will see here many things that the Hellenists or Latin translators had not allowed even to be suspected.”

 

 

 

 

1:12 Thus the earth will produce vegetation, which grows and reproduces itself according to species from its seeds; and God saw that it was good.

1:12 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

 

ace’ATw

And she shall manifest the germination, the birth, the coming

#r<a'øh'

The earth

av,D<û

(Of) vegetation

bf,[eä

That forms producing/generating itself

[:yrIÜz>m;:

Seeding, germinating [*]

‘[r:z

Seed, germ [*]

WhnEëymil

Of its species

#[eów.

Of physical substance, which grows up, develops, consolidates

yrI±P.-hf,[

That makes fruit

rv<ïa

Which

Abß-A[r>z

Seed inside itself

WhnE+ymil

Of the species of itself

ar.Y:ïw:.:]

And He saw

~yhiÞl{a

God

`bAj)-yKi

That it was good

[*] This is the style of the writer; he use verbs and nouns, drawn from the same root, and repeat them in different modifications. It is an important feature for understanding and confirmation of the translation.

 

 

 

 

1:13 And this was the physical growth and the characteristics of the third day.

1:13 And the evening and the morning were the third day.

 

br<[,î-yhiy>w:¥

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiy>w

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ayð

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`yvi(yliv

Third, three

 

 

 

 

1:14 Then God said, there will be lights in the sky, to determinate day and night, the seasons and the years.

1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiªl{a

God

yhiÛy>

They shall be

troaom

Luminaries; everything that shines, gives light; everything warms [1]

[:yqIår>Bi

In the rarefaction

~yIm;êV'h

Of the sky

lyDI§b.h;l.

To separate

!yBeî

Between

~AYàh

The day; visible manifestation of the matter

!ybeäW

And between

hl'y>L"+h

The night

WyÝh'w

And they shall be

ttoaol

For coming signs

~ydIê[]Amål.W

And for temporal divisions; cycles, periods. Seasons

~ymiÞy"l.W

And for the days

`~ynI)v'w

And the years

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  tArAam  sensible lights. This is the root  rAa  light, determined into form by the plastic sign  m  I have restored to this word the mother voxels which the Chaldaic punctuation had suppressed; I have done the same in the following: but I must state that the suppression of these vowels is here necessitated by the hieroglyphic style. For the Divine Verb always expressing itself in the future, and the accomplishment of the will of the Being of beings, following likewise in the convertible future, the creation remains always in power, according to the meaning of the initial word  tyvarB  This is why the word  tram  is deprived of the luminous sign not only in the singular, but also in the plural.”

 

 

 

 

1:15 They will be in the sky to light up the earth; and this was constituted.

1:15 And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

 

WyÝh'w>

And they shall be

‘troAam.li

For luminary [*]

[:yqIår>Bi

In the rarefactions

~yIm;êV'h

Of the sky

ryaiÞh'l

For lights [*]

#r<a'_h'-l[;.;

Upon the earth

`!kE)-yhiy>w:¥

And it was decided, designated

[*] This is the style of the writer; he use verbs and nouns, drawn from the same root, and repeat them in different modifications. It is an important feature for understanding and confirmation of the translation.

 

 

 

 

1:16 And God made the essence of the sun and the moon, the two increaser of the organic life; the sun for the manifestation of the day and the moon, that repeats itself in succession, for the manifestation of the night; and He also made the essence of the stars.

1:16 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

 

f[;Y:åw

And He made

~yhiêl{a

God

ynEïv.-ta

The essence of the two

troßaoM.h

The luminary

~yli_doG>h

ld       ag      g

The enlargers of organic matter; that elevates organic matter, that rises organic life, that extracts organic matter

rAaÝM'h;-ta

The essence of the luminary

‘ldoG"h;,;;,

The enlarger of organic matter

tl,v,äm.m,l

As representative symbol, emblem

~AYëh

Of the day; visible manifestation of the matter

rAaÝM'h;-ta,w

And the essence of the luminary

!joQ'h‘

!j    wq   q

The repetitive, the persistent; which repeats the sequence; that repeats itself in succession [1]

tl,v,äm.m,l.

As representative symbol, emblem

hl'y>L;êh

Of the night

taeÞw>;

And (He made) the essence

`~ybi(k'AKh

Of the stars

[1] This word, which is present only twice in the Creation, is also used to describe Canaan, the “youngest” in Gen. 9.24; because this is the characteristic of the Moon and the characteristic of Canaan: the Moon is repetitive and persistent in its cycle like Canaan, whose translation is human body, which is repetitive and persistent in its cycle as well.

 

 

 

 

1:17 And God set the essence of the sun and the moon in the sky to give light on the earth.

1:17 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth,

 

!TEïYIw:

And He placed

~t'²ao

The essence of them

~yhiÞl{a

God

[:yqIår>Bi

In the rarefaction

~yIm"+V'h

Of the sky

ryaiÞh'l

To give light

`#r<a'(h'-l[;.;

Upon the earth

 

 

 

 

1:18 To manifest the day and the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.

1:18 And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

 

‘lvom.liw

As representative symbol, as emblem

~AYæB;

Of the day

hl'y>L;êb;W

And of the night

lyDIêb.h;l]W

And for the separation, distinction

!yBeî

Between

rAaàh

The light

!ybeäW

And between

%v,xo+h

The darkness

ar.Y:ïw:

And He saw

~yhiÞl{a

God

`bAj)-yKi

That it was good

 

 

 

 

1:19 And this was the physical growth and the characteristics of the fourth day.

1:19 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

 

br<[,î-yhiy>w:)

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiy>w

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ay

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`y[i(ybir

Fourth, four

 

 

 

 

1:20 Then God said, the water will produce the cyclic proliferation of living souls; and the winged will fly above the earth, in the sky.

1:20 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiêl{a

God

Wcår>v.yI

cr       {av

They shall bring forth cyclical proliferation that is propagated by dividing [1] [*]

~yIM;êh

  hm 

The waters [2]

#r<v

Of cyclical and prolific ferment [*]

vp,n<å,Þ;

(With) soul

hY"+x;

(Of) life

‘@A[w>

And the winged [*]

@pEåA[y

Shall fly [*]

#r<a'êh'-l[;

Upon the earth

ynEßP.-l[;

Upon the face/front/before

[:yqIïr

Of the rarefaction

`~yIm")V'h

Of the sky

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  Wcrvy  shall-spring-forth-plentifully. The Samaritan version says (samaritan font) the waters shall emit prolifically in prolific emission. The Chaldaic targum gives  avhr  aym  !Wvhry  the waters shall ferment a ferment. Thus can be seen that even in the literal sense, the Hellenists have been weak, for in saying (greek font), the waters shall bring forth reptiles, they have distorted not only the thought, but the expression of Moses, which has here a picturesque forcefulness. The verb  cArv  which he employs, springs from two contracted roots  cr-rv  ; the first,  rv   composed of the signs of relative and proper movement, or circular and rectilinear, indicates an emission, a liberation, a detachment, a separation. The second,  cr  characterizes a sort of movement, of vibration, recommencing and finishing, reptilian, being propagated by being divided: thus the compound  crv  contains every idea of propagative emission, of motive origin, of generative separation. This is the figurative and hieroglyphic meaning. In the literal sense, it is a reptilian movement, and in a wholly restricted and materialized sense, a reptile.”

[2] The Hebrew words meaning matter and water, come from two different roots, yet so similar, which in the formation of their words, are always expressed only in the plural form, they become indistinguishable, in the absence of a context or of their lost pronunciation, which identifies them. RADICAL VOCABULARY:

  hm  MEH. That which is essentially mobile, essentially passive and creative; the element from which everything draws its nourishment; that which the ancients regarded as the female principle of all generation, water, and which they opposed to the male principle, which they believed to be fire.

  hm  or  ÞAm  or  Þym  Every idea of mobility, fluidity, passivity; that which is tenuous and impassive, whose intimate essence remains unknown, whose faculties are relative to the active principles which develop them; in a literal and restricted sense, water, in an abstract sense who? which ? what is it? someone, something.”

[*] This is the style of the writer; he use verbs and nouns, drawn from the same root, and repeat them in different modifications. It is an important feature for understanding and confirmation of the translation.

 

 

 

 

1:21 Thus God created the essence of the physical growth, that faculty which makes every living soul growing and becoming adult after their kind in the water; and He created the essence of the every winged after its kind; and God saw that it was good.

1:21 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

 

ar"äb.YIw:

And He created

~yhiêl{a

God

~nIßyNIT;h;-ta

!yg       !t

The essence of the physical growth; the essence of the extension and expansion of the organic bodies

~yli_doG>h;,

The enlarger of organic matter; that elevates organic matter, that rises organic life, that extracts organic matter

taeäw>

And the essence

vp,n<å-lK'

Of every soul [1]

hY"åx;h

Of life

tf,m,‡roh'

fa     mr

To grow (to become adult)

rv,a

Which

Wc’r>v'

They form cyclical proliferation that is propagated by dividing

~yIM;øh

The waters

~h,ªnEymi(l.;

After their kind

tae’w

And the essence

@A[Ü-lK'

Of every winged

‘@n"K'

Flying

WhnEëymil

After its kind

ar.Y:ïw

And He saw

~yhiÞl{a

God

`bAj)-yKi

That it was good

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  hYxh  vpn  soul-of-life The word  vpn  which is used by Moses to designate, in general, the soul and the animating life of being, merits much more serious attention, as this great man has been accused by very superficial writers who have never read him, or by very prejudiced sectarians who have read him only to misunderstand him, of having denied the existence of this spiritual essence. The root from which the word  vpn  comes, is without doubt material, for there is no word possible, in any tongue possible, whose elements are not material. As I have said in my Grammar it is the noun which is the basis of speech. Everytime that man wishes to express an intellectual and moral thought, he is obliged to make use of a physical instrument, and to take from elementary nature, material objects which he spiritualizes, as it were, in making them pass, by means of metaphor or hieroglyphic, from one region into another.
Three distinct roots compose this important word and are worthy of the closest attention. The first  pn  presents the idea of an inspiration, an infusion, a movement operated from without, within: it is literally an inspiring breath. The second  hp  which is only the reaction of the first, is attached to the idea of expansion, of effusion, of movement operated from within, without: it is literally the mouth, the expiring breath, the voice, the speech, etc. The third finally  va  characterizes the principiant principle of which I have already spoken in v. 1 of this chapter. It is fire, and that which is igneous, ardent, impassioned, etc.
Such is the hieroglyphic composition of the word  vpn  the soul, which, formed of the three roots  va-hp-pn  presents the symbolic image of a thing that the Egyptian priests regarded as belonging to a triple nature. This is known to be the idea of Pythagoras and Plato, who had drawn it from the Egyptian sanctuaries. Those priests, instructors of Moses, saw in  pn  the partie naturante of the soul, in  hp  the partie naturée, and in  va  the partie naturelle. From this elementary triad resulted a unity whose immortality they taught, according to all the ancient sages.

The Hebrew text, the Samaritan version, the Chaldaic targum, and even the Syriac and Arabic, employ the same word; only, they give, following their genius, different significations to the verb which is formed of it. Among the Hebrews,  vApn  signifies to live and breathe; among the Chaldeans, to grow, to multiply, to fill space; the Samaritan verb (samaritan font), expresses to dilate, to develop, to manifest; the Syriac give life, to heal; the Arabic (arabic font) to expand, to evaporate, etc.”

 

 

 

 

1:22 And He worked their essences saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the essence of the water of the sea, and the winged will multiply upon the earth.

1:22 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.

 

%r<b'óy>w:

k  %a  rb

And He worked, activated, turn on the faculties [1]

~t'²ao

The essence of them

~yhiÞl{a

God

rmo=ale

Saying

WråP

(Be) fruitful, productive, generative

Wbªr>W

And increase, multiply

WaÜl.miW

And fill

‘~yIM;’h;-ta

The essence of the waters

~yMiêY:B

In the seas

@A[ßh'w

And the winged

br,yIï

He shall increase, multiply

`#r<a'(B

Upon the earth

[1] Work. This English word, like many other, comes directly from the etymological vocabulary, same consonants and same meaning.

 

 

 

 

1:23 And this was the physical growth and the characteristics of the fifth day.

1:23 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

 

br<[,î-yhiy>w

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiy>w

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ayð

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`yvi(ymix

Fifth, five

 

 

 

 

1:24 Then God said: the earth will bring forth living souls in quadruped species, which will grow up and become adult after its kind; and this was constituted.

1:24 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiªl{a

God

ace’AT

She shall bring forth

#r<a'øh

The earth

vp,n<Ü

Soul

hY"x

Of life

Hn"ëymil

After her kind

hm'îheB

Quadruped

fm,r<²w"

That grows (to become adult)

#r<a,Þ-Aty>x:)w

And of its earthly life

Hn"+ymil

After her kind

`!kE)-yhiy>w:).

And it was decided, designated

 

 

 

 

1:25 And God made the essence of all that lives on the earth after its kind; he made the essence of quadrupeds after its kind; and, in everything that grows up and becomes adult, He set the likeness of their own species; and God saw that it was good.

1:25 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.

 

 

f[;Y:åw

And He made

•~yhil{a/:

God

tY:“x;-ta

The essence of the life of

#r<a'øh'

The earth

Hn"©ymil

After her kind

hm'heB.h;-ta,w>

And the essence of the quadruped

Hn"ëymil

After her kind

tae²w>

And the essence

fm,r<î-lK'

Of everything that grows (to become adult)

hm'Þd"a]h'

  ~d     a

Of the likeness, equality, identity, similarity [1] [*]

WhnE+ymil

After his kind

ar.Y:ïw

And He saw

~yhiÞl{a

God

`bAj)-yKi

That it was good

[1] Erroneously translated as earth, soil or ground, this word means likeness; it is the feature of our name, Adam, just proceeded by the definite article and followed by directive or emphatic article. In the original text of the Creation this word is present 28 times and will always have the same meaning as likeness, resemblance, similarity or identity.

 

 

 

 

1:26 And God said, We will make the human being like Us, in our projection and likeness; and he (they) will have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the sky, and over the quadrupeds, and over all the earth, and in everything that grows and becomes adult upon the earth.

1:26 And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiêl{a/:

God

hf,î[]n:)

We will make

~d"²a'

 ~d     a

(The) human being, Humanity [1] [*]

WnmeÞl.c;B.

lc

In our projection, propagation [2]

Wnte_Wmd>Ki

According to our likeness; similar to our likeness [*]

•WDr>yIw

dr

And they shall rule, govern, control [3]

tg:“d>bi

In the fish of

~Y"÷h

The sea

@A[åb.W

And in the winged

~yIm;ªV'h

Of the sky

hm'heB.b;W

And in the quadruped

#r<a'êh'-lk'b.W

And in all the earth

fm,r<Þh'-lk'b.W

And in everything that grow (to become adult)

fmeîroh'¥

Of growing (to become adult)

`#r<a'(h'-l[

Upon the earth

[1] D’Olivet’s note: “  ~da  Adam. I beg those who are reading this without partiality, to observe that Moses does not fall here into the modern error which has made of man a particular species in the animal kingdom; but only after having finished all that he wished to say concerning the elementary, the vegetable and the animal kingdom, he passes on to a kingdom distinct and higher that he names  ~da  Adam.

Among the savants who have searched for the etymology of the word Adam, the majority went no further than its grossest exterior; nearly all of them have seen only red clay, or simple clay, because the word  ~Ada  signifies red or reddish; because by  hmda  the earth in general, has been understood; but they have failed to see that these words themselves are compounds, and that they can only be the roots of words still more compound; whereas the word  ~da  being more simple cannot come from it.
The Egyptian priests, authors of this mysterious name, and of a great part of those employed by Moses, have composed it with an infinite art. It presents three meanings, as do the greater part of those which enter into the composition of the Beraeshith. The first, which is the literal meaning, has been restricted more and more, in proportion as the ideas of the Hebrews have been narrowed and materialized; so that it is doubtful whether it was understood in its purity even at the epoch of the Babylonian captivity, at least by the vulgar. The Samaritan version, the most ancient of all, is also the one which conserves best its signification. It is seen in the efforts made by the translator to find a corresponding expression. After having copied the name itself (samaritan font), he sought a synonym for it in (samaritan font) man; but feeling that this synonym did not render the Hebrew, he chose the word (samaritan font) universal, infinite: an opportune word which proves the anteriority and the superiority of the Samaritan version over the Chaldaic targum; for the author of this targum, in interpreting  ~da  does not go beyond the material meaning and confines himself constantly to the word  avnya    man. The Hellenists who follow quite voluntarily the Samaritan have abandoned it on this occasion. They would have exposed too much the spiritual meaning which they wished to hide. They were content to copy the Chaldaic and translate  ~da  by (greek font), man; in which they have been imitated by Saint Jerome and his successors.
The name given to Adam  ~da  signifies not only "homo," man, but it characterizes, as the Samaritan had clearly seen in rendering it by (samaritan font) universal, that which we understand by mankind, and which we would express much better by saying kingdom of man: it is collective man, man abstractly formed of the assemblage of all men. This is the literal meaning of  ~da 
The figurative meaning is indicated by the constant practice which Moses follows, of making the noun always accompanied by a verb from the same root. Now what is the verb here which follows the word  ~da  ? It is  tWmd  used constructively in the enunciative nominal, inflected by the assimilative article  k   and bearing the affix of the first person plural  WntWmdK  that is to say, word-for-word and grammatically, conformable-to-our-action-of-assimilating. This comparison of the verb and the noun, gives us the root from which both spring. This root is  ~d  which carries with itself every idea of assimilation, of similitude, of homogeneity. Governed by the sign of power and stability  a  it becomes the image of an immortal assimilation, of an aggregation of homogeneous and indestructible parts. Such is the etymology of the name Adam,  ~da  in its figurative sense.
I shall enlarge less upon the hieroglyphic meaning, which Moses allows nevertheless, to be understood in the same verse, and to which he makes allusion, by causing this same noun, which is singular, to govern the future plural verb  Wdry  quite contrary to the rule which he had followed, of making the noun of the Being of Beings  ~yhla  which is plural, govern always the singular verb. The hieroglyphic root of the name Adam  ~da  is  da  which, composed of the sign of unitary, principiant power, and that of divisibility, offers the image of a relative unity, such as might be expressed, for example, by means of the simple although compound number 10. This root being endowed with the collective sign  ~  assumes an unlimited development: that is to say, the symbolic number 10, being taken to represent the root  da  , the sign  ~  will develop its progressive power to infinity, as 10; 100; 1000; 10,000, etc.”

[2] D’Olivet’s note: “  Wnmlcb  in-the-shadow-universal-ours This figurative expression, very difficult to render was already materialized at the epoch when the Samaritan version was written. Here is the sentence word-for-word: (samaritan font) "And-he-said, HE GOD, let-us-work-upon Adam, in-the-form-exterior-ours, and after-the-action-ours-of-us-composing" The Chaldaic targum copies the Hebrew; but everything proves that it is misinterpreted. The Hellenists say, (greek font), in the image; the Hebraic root  lc  is obvious; it expresses always an idea of a shadow thrown upon something, a veil, an appearance, a protection. The collective sign  ~  which terminates the word  ~lc  universalizes its meaning.”

[3] This is the same root of the words “deep sleep”, in Gen. 2.21, where God give to Adam the faculty of volition, for govern, for control.

[*] This is the style of the writer; he use verbs and nouns, drawn from the same root, and repeat them in different modifications. It is an important feature for understanding and confirmation of the translation.

 

 

 

 

1:27 Thus God created the essence of the human being in His own projection; in the projection of God He created his essence; He created the essence of them male and female.

1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.

 

 

ar"’b.YIw

And He created

~yhiÛl{a/:

God

‘~d"a'h'¥-ta

The essence of the human being

Amêl.c;B.,

In His own projection, propagation

~l,c,îB

In the projection, propagation of

~yhiÞl{a

God

ar"äB'

He created

At=ao

The essence of him

rk"ïz

rk      z

Male; the tie, the connection, the motion, the direction of the features/characteristics

hb'Þqen>W

ba     qn          Or:        bq    an

And female; the nursing of children [or] the gravid/pregnant of the produced being; the gravid/pregnant of the extension

ar"îB'

He created

`~t'(ao

The essence of them

 

 

 

 

1:28 And He worked their essences saying, be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the winged of the sky, and over every animal that grows upon the earth.

1:28 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.

 

%r<b'äy>w

And He worked, activated, turn on the faculties

~t'ao

The essence of them

è~yhil{a

God

rm,aYO“w:

And He said

~h,øl'

To them

~yhiªl{a

God

WrïP.

(Be) fruitful, productive, generative

Wb±r>W

And grow, enlarge, increase, multiply

Waïl.miW

And fill

#r<a'Þh'-ta

The essence of the earth

h'vu_b.kiw

 va        bk

And (be) her centre (of gravity) of power

Wdúr>W

And be the govern

tg:Üd>Bi

In the fish of

‘~Y"h

The sea

@A[åb.W

And in the winged of

~yIm;êV'h

The sky

hY"ßx;-lk'b.W

And in all the life

tf,m,îroh'

That grows (to become adult)

`#r<a'(h'-l[;¥

Upon the earth

 

 

 

 

1:29 And God said, I have given you the essence of all that grows yielding seed on the earth, and the essence of every substance and fruit yielding seed; to you it will be for food.

 

1:29 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.

 

rm,aYOæw

And He said

~yhiªl{a/:

God

•hNEhi

Behold

yTit;’n

I have given

~k,øl'

To you

bf,[eä-lK'-ta

The essence of everything that forms producing/generating itself

[;rEäzO

Seeding, germinating

[r:z<©,

Seed, germ

rv,a

Which (is)

ynEåP.-l[;

On the vastitude of

#r<a'êh'-lk'

All the earth

#[e²h'-lK'-ta,w

And the essence of every physical substance, which grows up, develops and consolidates

ABï-rv,a

Which (has) in its self

#[eÞ-yrIp

Fruit of physical substance, which grows up, develops and consolidates

[;rEäzO

Seeding, germinating

[r;z"+

Seed, germ

~k,îl'

To you

hy<ßh.yI

It shall be

`hl'(k.a'l

For food

 

 

 

 

1:30 And to every animal of the earth, and to every winged of the sky, and to everything that grows upon the earth, wherein is a living soul, I have given the essence of every green herb for food; and this was constituted.

1:30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.

 

tY:åx;-lk'l.W

And to every existence

#r<a'h'û

Of the earth

@A[’-lk'l.W

And to every winged

~yIm;øV'h;

Of the sky

lkoål.W

And to all

fmeäAr

That grows (to become adult)

#r<a'ªh'-l[;

Upon the earth

AB-rv,a

Which (is) inside itself

vp,n<å

Soul

hY"ëx

Living

qr,y<ï-lK'-ta

qr     y

Tht essence of every tenuous manifestation, thin, attenuated, expanded, spread. The grass

bf,[

That forms producing/generating itself

hl'_k.a'l

For food

`!kE)-yhiy>w

And it was decided, designated

 

 

 

 

1:31 And God saw that the essence of everything He had made was completely good; and this was the physical growth and the characteristics of the sixth day.

1:31 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.

 

ar.Y:Üw:

And He sow

‘~yhil{a/

God

rv<åa]-lK'-ta

The essence of all that

hf'ê[',

He (had) made

bAjß-hNEhiw

And behold it (was) very good

dao+m.

Completely, entirely in the whole extent of its faculties

br<[,î-yhiy>w

And that was the multiplication, augmentation, increment, propagation of the matter, of the physical reality; of that which is sentient, obvious to the senses; of the exterior form of things

rq,boß-yhiy>w

And that was the signs, the events of the progression, of the coming, of the passage from one place to another

~Ay

(Of the) Day; visible manifestation of the matter

`yVi(Vih

Sixth, six

 

 

 

 

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